Monday, June 29, 2020

Factors that Affect Health Expenditure Essay - 550 Words

Factors that Affect Health Expenditure (Essay Sample) Content: Name:Course:Tutor:Date:Demystifying he drivers of expenditure within the healthcare systemExpenditure and allocation of resources in the health care system are dependent, so much on a variety of impetus. One of the factors that plays a critical role in the determining how resources are allocated is the workforce. The size of the workforce and its organization will play quite an important role in showing how much will be spent in this field. The payment systems also have quite a heavy toll on the expenditure that can be incurred on the healthcare system. There are still other factors such as physical integration and technology that determine the cost incurred in the health care system. A complete analysis of all these issues will reveal how they determine how the healthcare allocates resources and prioritizes issues.One of the major drivers of expenditure in the healthcare system is the workforce. Ideally, the capacity that the workforce carries will determine greatly the amount of resource that will be allocated to the particular sector. Most of the resources that are allocated to this sector are I terms of the salaries. While looking at the Australian healthcare system, it is evident that there has been an increase in expenditure on the workforce from the year 2012. This has been attributed the increasing volume of the workforce. As well, a good number of this workforce has formal training which eventually puts more pressure on the healthcare system to apt their salaries (, 2014). This is to say that the expenditure and the allocation of resources on healthcare are in one way or another dependent on the workforce.The payment system is another factor that plays a vital role in determining the cost incurred in the healthcare. Over the years there have been debates most profound in the senate on how the federal expenditure on healthcare can be reduced. One of the debates has been around the issue of the payment system. It is argued tha t the rectification of the payment system will go a long way in making sure that the expenditure on healthcare is reduced(, 2014). Nevertheless, there has been a keen interest in the quality of service provision. In this case, the rectifications on the payment system should be careful not to jeopardize the quality of healthcare. The federal government estimates that the biggest percentage of expenditure in the healthcare system comes about due to the poor payment system. Thatà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s to say if the payment system can be corrected then expenditure is expected to reduce.The integration of physicians in the healthcare system, has both the positive and negative effect in the expenditure and the cost incurred. On one hand, the integration can be a way of reducing expenditures by the improving of care coordination as well as efficiency. In this way less will be spent on the services and payments made to the physicians and in this way the expenditure can go d own. But on the flip side of the coin this can be one way of increasing expenditure in the sense that; more incentives and higher payments will be required for the services that are provided in the outpatients (Baker, 2014). It is then a tight balance that needs to be maintained in order to scale this stair properly.In addition, technology is one of the major drivers of expenditure in the healthcare system. One of the ways in which this comes about is that the resources that are required to set up the system within the healthcare system are quite costly. At the same time, the requirements for integration of this system can quite be costly. Also the manpower to maintain the kind of technology and the costs associated with their training are a thing to ponder on. But looking at the long time benefits brought about by technology, one will agree that it has a net effect of reducing expenditure. Thus, it is wort...

Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Sojourner Truth and African American Community Before 1880 - 550 Words

Sojourner Truth and African American Community Before 1880 (Essay Sample) Content: Sojourner TruthName:Institution:Sojourner TruthFrom the ancient days of the presence of Africans in the U.S, there has been much contribution from the blacks into the American culture fiber, ranging from innovative musical interludes to useful inventions, and beyond. The blacks have tirelessly served and died as they defend their adopted homeland. Others have brought up ideas that have helped America proceed and develop greatly while some pushed for the equality that is observed in America. This essay will identify and describe an African American individual who had an impact on the African American community before 1880. The particular individual is Sojourner Truth. She was born in 1797, being one of the twelve children born to Elizabeth and James Baumfree in New York, Ulster County, in the town of Swartekil (Truth Gilbert, 2012). Her real name was Isabella Baumfree and her actual date of birth wasnt recorded, since it was normal for children born into slavery. Howe ver, historians guess that it is likely she was born approximately in the year 1797. Both her parents were slaves under Colonel Hardeebergh, and stayed in New York, at the colonels estate located in Esopus. Since the area had been once under the control of Dutch, both the Hardenbergs and Baumfrees spoke Dutch normally (McKissack, 2012).After the colonel died, Baumfrees ownership was passed on to Charles, his son. In the year 1806, the Baumfrees were separated when the Colonel died. Sojourner Truth was nine years old at that time, known as Belle. She was auctioned and sold for $100 together with a flock of sheep. It was John Neely who bought her, a man she remembered as violent and harsh (Merchant Denos, 2007). He would sell her twice more after the following two years, and eventually came to reside on John Dumonts property at West Park. Sojourner Truth learned to converse in English for the first time during these years. She changed her name from Isabella Baumfree on 1st of June in the year 1843 to Sojourner Truth. She dedicated her whole life pursuing Methodism, equity, and abolition of slavery. In the year 1844, she enrolled to join the Northampton Association of Education and Industry, located in Massachusetts (Staudenmaier, 2012). Since it was founded by Abolitionists, the organization pushed for a reform agenda comprising of pacifism and the rights of women.In May 1851, Sojourner Truth presented a great speech she had composed at the Ohio Womens Rights Convention in Akron. This is the speech that made her famous and helped her support her efforts in fighting for abolition and womens rights. The exemplary speech was recorded by various observers and would be later titled Aint I a Woman? Marius Robson, the editor of Ohio newspaper published the first version of the speech a month later. In addition to the speech, she advocated for recruitment of black troops during the Ci...

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Propaganda For The World War I - 1650 Words

Imagine a powerful tool someone could use in order to reach and influence the masses, from even a small community to a whole nation or even multiple nations. Something that can be used to spread awareness and information, whether it be true or false, used to paint a picture and influence masses to a single viewpoint. Propaganda: â€Å"ideas or statements that are often false or exaggerated and that are spread in order to benefit a cause, a political leader, a government, etc.† Could there be a more perfect tool used to influence millions of people; whether it be promoting or bashing a person, and idea, or a nation? Something as innocent as a poster on wall seen by a passerby, but with a sentimental message that urges attention. People have†¦show more content†¦Nations attacked the dignity and eroded any humanistic view that other nations might have had. Occasionally time was of the essence, and they needed something quick to get the people’s attention and imme diate support and so propaganda was the answer. From the 19th century to the early 20th century, the United States was still largely isolationists; focusing more on domestic affairs and trying to stay out of European affairs. In the United States, President Woodrow Wilson was very opposed to going to war and publically made so aware to the people. Even with tensions building up to the First World War, the U.S. did not want to get involved in European affairs. In his speech of acceptance, President Wilson said â€Å"We have been neutral not only because it was the fixed and traditional policy of the United States to stand aloof from the politics of Europe† but because the United States â€Å"had no part† to play in the war. He portrays the war in a very negative manner, describing it as an â€Å"infection of conflict† and as the â€Å"extension of the fires of hate and desolation.† He also states that our role was to â€Å"serve mankind by reserving our strength and our resources for the difficult day s of restoration and healing.† The U.S. couldn’t turn a blind eye for long though. With a series of events including the Zimmerman Telegram, the attack on the Lusitania, and Germany’s declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare, they were edged on to join. Allied

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Colloid - Chemistry Glossary Definition

A colloid is a type of homogeneous mixture in which the dispersed particles do not settle out. The insoluble particles in the mixture are microscopic, with particle sizes between 1 and 1000 nanometers. The mixture may be termed a colloid or a colloidal suspension. The phrase colloidal solution is incorrect. Sometimes the term colloid only refers to the particles in the mixture and not the entire suspension. Colloids may be translucent due to the Tyndall effect, where light is scattered by particles in the mixture. Examples of Colloids Colloids may be gases, liquids, or solids. Examples of familiar colloids include butter, milk, smoke, fog, ink, and paint. Cytoplasm is another example of a colloid. Source Levine, Ira N. (2001). Physical Chemistry (5th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. p. 955. ISBN 978-0-07-231808-1.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Bicycle Thieves - 1596 Words

Vittorio De Sica’s The Bicycle Thieves is a simple story set amidst a post-war Rome. It is a neorealist film characterized by setting the story amongst the poor and working class. The film surrounds the difficult economical and moral conditions of post WWII Italy, reflecting the conditions of everyday life: Poverty and desperation, with the implicit message that in a better society, wealth would be more evenly distributed. The plot is simple, surrounding a man, his son and a bicycle. The film tells a story of Antonio Ricci, an unemployed worker who finally gets a job to paste advertisements in the city of Rome. To keep this job, he must have a bicycle, in which his wife, Maria had to pawn their bed linens to get money to redeem their†¦show more content†¦This further creates authenticity of the film and shows the hardship that the people face during that period. As for the actors, none had the slightest experience in theater or film. Antonio (Lamberto Maggiorani) was a factory worker in Breda factory, Bruno (Enzo Staiola) was found hanging around in the street and Maria (Lianella Carell) was a journalist. Despite his age, Bruno already plays a mature role in the family, as can be seen in him working. Nonetheless, dressed like his father in overalls, he remains at his fathers side or in his shadow. We first see him proudly cleaning the newly reclaimed bicycle, and he gently rebukes his father for not complaining to the pawnshop workers about a dent for which they are responsible. Brunos self-assured walk and obedience to his fathers authority are nothing compared to the love for his father we see in his eyes. In addition, Bruno serves as his fathers moral compass: What are you, my conscience? Antonio asks, annoyed, moments after striking him. As his fathers conscience, but also as his son and friend, Bruno suffers public humiliation with him. One distinct prop that the movie uses is the bicycle. the brand name of Antonios bicycle, Fides, which means faith or, even more ironically for this story, reliance. (Nothing could be less reliable than that red bicycle.) This can be seen in many scenes. For example, right at the beginning of the movie, the bicycle is introduced when the government officerShow MoreRelatedThe Work Bicycle Thieves By Vittorio De Sica2024 Words   |  9 PagesThe work Bicycle Thieves is chosen to be discussed in this essay. Bicycle Thieves is an Italian film published in 1948, directed by Vittorio De Sica. It gained both commercial and artistic success, and have won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film in 1948. The film is famous for its neorealism that reflects the post-war Italian society. In the following essay, I’m going to discuss how did De Sica use the cinematography skills to strengthen his expressions in Bicycle Thieves, and the waysRead MoreBicycle Thieves1588 Words   |  7 PagesVittorio De Sica’s The Bicycle Thieves is a simple story set amidst a post-war Rome. It is a neorealist film characterized by setting the story amongst the poor and working class. The film surrounds the difficult economical and moral conditions of post WWII Italy, reflecting the conditions of everyday life: Poverty and desperation, with the implicit message that in a better society, wealth would be more evenly distributed. The plot is simple, surrounding a man, his son and a bicycle. The film tells aRead MoreBicycle Thieves Analysis1154 Words   |  5 Pages While Rossellini’s Rome Open City portrays the struggle for freedom, De Sica’s Bicycle Thieves tries to find the human face. He discovered it not in the exceptional sorrow of war but in the misery of daily life where war is just one aspect of the human lot. Bicycle Thieves takes place at a specific time under a unique series of social conditions that shape both its narrative and its embrace of the Neorealist style. Consider the intricate sociopolitical climate of Italy just before the film’sRead MoreFilm Theory Vs. Realism1509 Words   |  7 Pages. However, not only was the subject matter different from national cinema, it also created a unique film style. The movement’s main principles were set forth by Cesare Zavattini, who released one of its most enduring classic, The Bicycle Thieves. â€Å"The Bicycle Thieves is one of the crown jewels of neorealism, the post-war Italian philosophy of filmmaking that permanently reinvigorated our world of cinema. Rejecting the illusory glamour and set-bound artificiality of conventional filmmaking, neorealismRead MoreItalian Neorealism ( 1945-1953 )1909 Words   |  8 PagesItalian neorealism (1945-1953), through directors like Roberto Rossellini and Vittorio De Sica, made its trademark on cinematic history not only in Italy, but also throughout the world. It was films such as Rome Open City (Roma città   aperta, 1945), The Bicycle Thief (Ladri di biciclette, 1948), and Umberto D., (1952) whose style of depicting the harsh economic and social realities of the poor and working class of Italy took off as a new cinematic style after World War II. Neorealism is a response to desperateRead MoreBicycle Thieves: An Expression of Italian Neo-realism756 Words   |  4 PagesBicycle Thieves is considered an example of Italian Neo-real ism. The plot demonstrates Italians of the working class in Italy and unfolds their day to day lives. One could argue it portray the reality and develops into an emotional storyline towards the end. Antonio, the main character is offered a job requiring a bicycle and on his first day it was stolen on the streets. You immediately feel drawn to the character as you want to see a happy ending. Watching the film, automatically feel sorry forRead MoreMovie Analysis: M vs. Bicycle Thieves Essay1399 Words   |  6 PagesAnalysis of M and Bicycle Thieves One thing that both movies, M and Bicycle Thieves, share collectively is the open ending; both movies make audiences interpret their own perception or ending of the movies. Also, both movies contain a sense of tragedy in the final scenes; in the movie M, I felt somewhat sympathetic toward the mentally ill killer even though I knew he was the serial killer and might be pretending to get away. The feeling of sympathy toward the serial killer in the presence of hisRead MoreBicycle Sharing System Bixi Comes to New York Essay5149 Words   |  21 Pagesleaked that PBSC was experiencing financial difficulties with its Montreal operations. The contract was worth several millions of dollars and was crucial to Bixi. The leak had the potential to jeopardize the chances of PBSC-Alta to win the contract. BICYCLE SHARING SYSTEMS AROUND THE GLOBE In 2011, bike-sharing services was a booming industry (exhibit 1). From 213 bike-sharing systems in operation in 14 countries across Europe in 2008, by this point there were 375 bike-sharing systems in operation acrossRead MoreTheme Of Neorealism In Ladri Di Biciclette1348 Words   |  6 Pagesscreenwriters who help start the Neorealism movement in his home county’s cinema once said â€Å" The true purpose on cinema is not to tell fables...There must be no gap between life and what is on the screen.† His screenplay, Ladri Di Biciclette (known as Bicycle Thieves to American audiences) is an artful manifestation of the Italian Neorealism. The film through numerous narrative aspects captures realistic snapshot into the fictional life of a working class family in post WWII Italy, and even has viewers questionRead More Comparison Of Two Films: Essay1268 Words   |  6 Pages In that paper, I will try to compare two films which are â€Å"A Birth of a Nation† directed by D.W.Griffith and â€Å"The Bicycle Thieves† directed by De Sica. After giving the story of the films, I will try to explain their technical features and their similarities. A Birth of a Nation by D. W. Griffith nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Griffith can be seen as the first modern director, his greatest achievements being the historical epics The Birth Of A Nation. When it was released, it was one of the longest

An Unquite Mind by Kay Redfield - 828 Words

The novel â€Å"An Unquiet Mind† starts off describing the life of a young girl, Kay. Early off in Kay’s life she is experiencing traumatizing life events. One of those events is a very close encounter with a plane that flew over the elementary playground very low and â€Å"It flew into the trees, exploding directly in front of us† (12). Early on it seems much easier to see how she developed the mental illness, manic-depressive (bipolar) illness. Also, her father showed signs of a bipolar illness and maybe it could be heredity. Another traumatizing event was when Kay and her family moved to California and the complete shock from the change in background. This switch also leads to Kay drinking before she attends classes for high school. Just at the age of 16, Kay is beginning to see just how much her mood swings are affecting her friends and how the bipolar illness is changing her life. The first D of abnormality that will help to describe Kay’s il lness is deviance. This is how the patient differs from society’s norms. An example that is very clear from the novel is when Kay has an urge for a particular book she wants to read. It starts off normal about wanting one book, â€Å"I ran off to the bookstore to track down a copy of it, which I did.† (42-43) but she leaves â€Å"with at least twenty other books† (43). This is the very deviant from what people without the illness would do. Another event that occurred during the maniac cycle that is deviant is the purchase of a horse for

Health care needs of

Question: Discuss about the Specific Health care needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait islanders. Answer: Introduction: As of 2016 City of Sydney community profile, a total of 2417 indigenous Australians live in Sydney as of 2016. The figure below shows the total population of Indigenous Australians in Sydney. It also, shows the number of individuals from Aboriginal. Torres Strait and Mixed Heritages and the kinds of dwellings they live in (, 2016). Figure 1: Indigenous populations in Sydney (source:, 2016) According to, 10,040 people (or 42% of the Australian population of Sydney reported one or more long term conditions. The common long term conditions were Asthma (3810), Hearing problems (2820), Chest problem (2250), Skin problem (2020), and Cardiac problem (1600), Hypertension (1310). This shows that Asthma is the biggest morbidity faced by the indigenous populations in Sydney (, 2018). Figure 2: Figure 1: Long term illness conditions among indigenous Australians (Aboriginals and Torres Strait islanders) (Source:, 2018). The Self Assessment of the health of the indigenous population showed that most people considered themselves in excellent health (15200), most others in fair or good health (7900) and a few (890) considered themselves to be in poor health. This showed a negative relation between the actual numbers of people suffering from long term conditions. Which can mean that their perceptions towards their own health might not be consistent with their actual health conditions? The biggest causes of morbidity and health conditions among 15,590 indigenous Australians above 13 years showed that the most significant contributor towards health issues was alcoholism (8180 cases), while the other contributors were drugs and substance abuse (1820), nutrition or diet (1410), cardiac problems (900) (, 2018). Figure 3: Main health problems faced by indigenous Australians in Sydney. (Source:, 2018) Different cultural determinants are related to the health and wellbeing of the indigenous people. These determinants include: their connection to nature, land, culture, ancestry as well as their history of being forced away from their culture, families and nature. The former have protective effects while the later has adverse effects (, 2018). The other protective factors are: kinship, self determination, community governance and cultural communities (, 2018). Figure 5: Health protecting factors of indigenous Australians. (Source:, 2018) In consideration to the determinants of health that affects the wellbeing of the indigenous Australian population in the Sydney area, it is important that effective care strategies address these determinants in order to protect the health and wellbeing of these people. Key strategies can include: a) Improving, supporting and fostering their connection to land, culture, spirituality and ancestry; b) Ensuring cultural continuity and c) Supporting the development of kinship and community governance. References: (2018).National Aboriginal and Torres Islander Survey- Sydney Retrieved 28 March 2018, from$File/41960_a Brand, E., Bond, C. and Shannon, C. (2018). Urban Indigenous Health: Opportunities and challenges in South East Queensland. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Mar. 2018]. (2018).Summary of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health Health facts Australian Indigenous Retrieved 28 March 2018, from (2016).Aboriginal Health Profile Retrieved 28 March 2018, from (2016).Indigenous population statistics | City of Sydney | Retrieved 28 March 2018, from